Further, analyzing the second aspect of the geography and history, viz. the history of Bihar, we can summarize the following points:
History of Bihar dates back to the reign of Bimbisara.
Many famous emperors, including the Guptas, had their capital in Patiliputra.
Mohammad Bin Bakhtiar Khalji was the first Muslim ruler to spread his domain in this region.
Khaljis were followed by the Tughluqs and the Mughals.
Mughals had worked wonders in the administration of Bihar.
But with their downfall, the Nawabs got an upper hand over Bihar.
In the Battle of Buxar, Bihar passed on to the British.
In 1931, the states of Bihar and Orissa were curbed from the Bengal Presidency.
Ultimately, on 15th November, 2000, a separate state known as Jharkhand was culled out.
Ashoka, the great king of the Mauryan dynasty of Bihar is known to the people all over the world as the greatest preacher of the words of Lord Buddha. Ashoka at first was a powerful warrior and believed in the extension of his territory through fights. He started his journey of conquering more and more kingdoms. He was extremely successful.
But it was a very notable day when Ashoka suddenly realized that it was useless to conquer lands which involved brutal killings. He actually could not bear the sight of the river filled with blood of the innocent people and had a massive set back.
Emperor Ashoka thus became a follower of Lord Buddha and started on his way to win the hearts of the people rather than their kingdoms. He started propagating the ideals of Buddhism in and around India.
Ashoka was also known as Priyadarshi or Priyadassi. If you go to the sites where there was the Kingdom of Ashoka you will find the edicts inscribed on stone pillars. These edicts of Ashoka were established all across his kingdom.
The pillars, better known as the Ashokan pillars are always provided with the statue of one or more lions crowning a pedestal. The pedestal bears the inscriptions with symbols of wheels.
Ancient kingdoms of Magadh
The ancient kingdoms of Magadh and Lichhavis in Bihar have a unique place in the history as well as the economic background of India. The kingdom flourished in the region at about 7-8th century BC.
The rulers of the kingdoms of Magadh and Lichhavis in Bihar were very efficient and had developed a method of administration which actually paved the way to the modern economic concepts of the country at present. They had a strong foresightedness and could visualize the things beyond their time. The economic strategies that they have made were so efficient that they made Magadh one of the most prosperous kingdoms in India.
The kingdoms of Magadh and Lichhavis in Bihar boasts to be the abode of Kautilya, the author of Arthashastra. He was the first person who laid down the foundation of the modern science of economics. The great economist was popular in the name of Chanakya. He was the advisor to the rulers of the kingdom of Magadh in Bihar.
Chandragupta Maurya is one of the brightest stars in the sky of the kingdoms of Magadh and Lichhavis in Bihar. As a representative of Chandragupta Maurya, Chanakya used to go to the far away places to strengthen the position of their state.
It was Chanakya who successfully prevented the Greek invaders from further killing. He actually established a good relationship of the kingdoms of Magadh and Lichhavis in Bihar with the Greeks.
India is known to the world as an ancient center for learning especially due to the presence of the place in Bihar called Nalanda. It is one of the earliest site of learning and knowledge not only of the country but of the world at large. The city of Nalanda is at present a place filled with the ruins of the ancient past consisting of the widely scattered red sandstones.
Whenever you turn back towards the rich cultural heritage of India in the age old days you will find the name of the Nalanda University. It had been the oldest university in the country. The university at Nalanda was founded by the rulers of the Gupta dynasty. The Nalanda University was the center of attraction for the students especially the Buddhist ones who used to come to this place from far and wide places of the world.
Nalanda University witnessed the emergence of the great scholars like Hiuen Tsang and Fahien who came to this place from their distant countries to learn in the university. Both of them have left immensely important accounts of the then Nalanda in Bihar. The accounts of these scholars form an important source of knowledge about the education, lifestyle, socio-economic conditions as well as the overall feature of Nalanda in the ancient past.
The early records show that Nalanda was frequently visited by Lord Mahavira as well as Lord Buddha. So the place is blessed with a great influence of these incarnations.